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Optimization of SiPM technology
The SRS activity on Silicon Photomultipliers leads to the development of new SiPM technologies, aimed the the optimization of different detector parameters, such as the Dark Count Rate, the Breakdown Voltage uniformity, the Photo Detection Efficiency, the Excess Noise Factor and the Dynamic Range.
We have worked on the redesign of the electric field in the active area of the microcells composing the SiPM, obtaining the RGB-SiPM technology, which features a reduced detector noise, expressed in terms of its Dark Count Rate (DCR). The new electric field also reduces significantly the variations of the breakdown voltage variations between different devices and it provides a much smaller gain temerature coefficient, which is of great interest in multi-channels applications.
We have also focused on the maximization of the PDE at different wavelengths, introducing a separate technology for the NUV light detection, called NUV-SiPM technology. This technology also features a further reduction of the DCR.
Finally, with the RGB-HD technology, we have reduced the microcell size, without a loss of Fill Factor, thanks to a re-design of the edge strucure of the microcells, in order to increase the dymanic range and reduce the correlated noise (Excess Noise Factor, or ENF).
FBK SiPM Technology Roadmap
The table below shows a summary of the various technologies developed during the years.
The table below shows the main parameters of the different technologies. Values apply to a SiPM with 50x50um2 cell size having a fill factor of 45%. In case of RGB_HD-SiPM, they apply to 15x15um2 cell size with a fill factor of 48%.
ECF (Excess charge factor) = ratio between the average charge associated to a primary event with and without including correlated noise. ECF can be considered as an upper limit of the Excess Noise Factor.
Serra, N., Ferri, A., Gola, A., Pro, T., Tarolli, A., Zorzi, N., & Piemonte, C. "Characterization of new FBK SiPM technology for visible light detection." Journal of Instrumentation, 8.03 (2013): P03019.(2013).
Pro, T.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Serra, N.; Tarolli, A.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C., "New Developments of Near-UV SiPMs at FBK," Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on , vol.60, no.3, pp.2247,2253, June 2013.
Piemonte, C.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Pro, T.; Serra, N.; Tarolli, A.; Zorzi, N., "Characterization of the First FBK High-Density Cell Silicon Photomultiplier Technology," Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on , vol.60, no.8, pp.2567,2573, Aug. 2013